RLC low pass filter type 1 Your browser does not support inline frames or is currently configured not to display inline frames. The magnitude of the voltage transfer function is derived from the potential divider equation: -   $$\dfrac{V_{OUT}}{V_{IN}} = \dfrac{\frac{1}{j\omega C}}{R + j\omega L +\frac{1}{j\omega C}} =\dfrac{1}{j\omega RC + j^2\omega^2 LC + 1}=\dfrac{\frac{1}{LC}}{\frac{1}{LC}-\omega^2+j\omega\frac{RC}{LC}}$$   For a 2nd order filter $$\frac{1}{LC} = \omega_n^2$$   and $$RC\omega_n = \frac{1}{Q} = 2\zeta$$ we get: -   $$\dfrac{V_{OUT}}{V_{IN}} =\dfrac{1}{1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}+j2\zeta\dfrac{\omega}{\omega_n}}$$     this yields the TF's phase angle: $$-\arctan\left[\dfrac{2\zeta\dfrac{\omega}{\omega_n}}{1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}}\right]$$   Multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator we get: -   $$\dfrac{V_{OUT}}{V_{IN}} =\dfrac{1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}-j2\zeta\dfrac{\omega}{\omega_n}}{(1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2})^2+4\zeta^2\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}}$$   The magnitude is found by taking the square root of the squared numerator terms: -   $$|H(j\omega)| = \dfrac{\sqrt{(1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2})^2+4\zeta^2\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}}}{(1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2})^2+4\zeta^2\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}} = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{(1-\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2})^2+4\zeta^2\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}}}$$   $$|H(j\omega)| = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{1+\dfrac{\omega^2}{\omega_n^2}\cdot(4\zeta^2-2)+\dfrac{\omega^4}{\omega_n^4}}}$$   As a sanity check, if $$\omega$$ is set to the natural frequency we get: -   $$|H(j\omega)| = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{1+(4\zeta^2-2) +1}} = \dfrac{1}{2\zeta} = Q$$   as expected. Your browser does not support inline frames or is currently configured not to display inline frames.

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